Russ Heltman. Instead, they shall be disciplined verbally and psychologically. Even other children who take refuge to a home of daballe will also be excused from any form of punishment. Accordingly, the appointed individuals will become junior councilors for the incoming senior Gadaa councilors. 0000012974 00000 n Keywords: Gadaa, indigenous institution, Oromo, conflict resolution, Awash River Basin, Borana. stream The five Gadaa parties orderly come to power. This article is about East African ethnic group. That is, unlike the case of junior gamme the senior gamme will be constituted into two institutions: age sets and Gada class. Spiritually, Boranas believe that there is a supreme Being in charge of their worldly affairs and upper dominion, they believe that there is a creator called 'WAQ'. 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In this respect, Gadaa is a holistic (social, economic, political and religious) system in essence and perhaps this fact made it difficult to define unanimously the Gadaa system by simple and clear terms. Abba Herrega (an appointed officer who 0000025742 00000 n Here the checks and balance is clearly visible, where councils over councils are institutionalized in order to avoid tyranny and dictatorship. The Concept of Peace in the Oromo Gadaa System: Its Mechanisms and Moral Dimension. Riley outlines their two options: They can either kill themselves or wait it out and savor whatever time they have left . There is an intergenerational correspondence between the hemicycles that: the first Gadaa grade is linked to the fifth, the second is linked to the sixth, the third is linked to the eighth, the fourth is likened to the ninth, the fifth is likened to the tenth, and the sixth is likened to the liminal/final (Gadamojjii) stage. Borana have their own form of an overhaul system for the last 567 years that is recognized by UNESCO as a heritage that needs to be protected. At this Gadaa grade, all elected Gadaa councilors at the kuusaa Gadaa grade will assume power at the sixth Gadaa grade. They are recognizable by their hairstyle known as guduru which is typically feminine (the Borana likens them to girls at this stage). However, in the history of Boran Gadaa leadership, the takeover ceremony was delayed in 1960. 'n[o7?N The class in power is headed by Abba Gadaa in Borana, Abba Bokku elsewhere. CigpOW$lAkHc-,Q%HvzcUu86e9riK!Q ; 5/2}36"qt0F{X;! Both sets of groups pass from one stage of development to the next every eight years. [1] It is also practiced by the Konso and Gedeo people of southern Ethiopia. The ruling group has the responsibility to assign senior leaders and experts to instruct and counsel these young men in the importance of leadership, organization, and warfare. Before proceeding to the discussion of Gadaa institutions it is necessary to clarify these conceptual understandings. The election of the Gadaa councilors takes place at the time when the rite of passage of the senior gamme to Kusa Gadaa grade takes place. The Abbaa Boku and his two colleagues are chosen from the oldest or most distinguished families, which are known as `families of Hayu. The principal function of the Abbaa Boku is to preside over the parliament to proclaim the laws, and to act when necessary as a ritual expert in the Gadaa-ceremonies. Old and wise as his years, he trudges along, stick in hand. Indigenous democratic system of governance used by Oromo people, Asmarom Legesse, "Gadaa: Three Approaches to the Study of African Society", 1973, Asmarom Legesse, "Oromo Democracy: an Indigenous African Political System", 2006, Donald Levine, "Greater Ethiopia: The Evolution of a Multiethnic Society", 1974, Z. Sirna, "Ethiopia: When the Gadaa Democracy Rules in a Federal State", 2012, "Gada system, an indigenous democratic socio-political system of the Oromo", "Sustaining generations of Indigenous voices: Reclaiming language and integrating multimedia technology", "The Gadaa System and Some of Its Institutions among the Booranaa: A Historical Perspective", "A heroic send-off for Aliyi Cirri, a pioneer Oromo freedom fighter whose courage and bravery inspired generations", "The Gada sysytem; full Dimocratical politics of Oromo;71stBorana BalliHand overing Day Febrawary 2009/20017:The Gada of Kura Jarso", "Gada System inscribed in UNESCO as Intangible World Heritage", "The 2015 Commemoration of Odaa-Bultum (One of the Major Oromo Gadaa System's Administrative Centers)", "A Journey to Revitalizing Gadaa at Odaa Hullee: Tracing Jimma University's Unwavering Commitment", "A Future Gaze: Gadaa Oriented Constitutional Structure for Oromia", "Waa'ee Gadaa wantoota beekuu qabdan shan", "BitGadaa | Futuristic African Democracy",, Articles with dead external links from December 2022, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0. The former Oromo traditional leader, Abba Gadaa Hiddoo Galgaloo of the Hawattu Assembly, was killed in a car accident on May 27th, 2009. endobj Both sets of groups pass from one stage of development to the next every eight years. trailer After a few minutes, the head of the council arrives, the Abba Gada or 'father of Gada' as he was called in the Borana tongue. First and foremost, the term generation does not mean age-peers as understood in the West. U%.T syO pvyc{CC7-uZ 1 G J6@H-##Ot@rDMp~ $tZ Abba Gada allows the Borana to estimate the stage their society has reached in its ritual progression through time (1973:188). [17][18] In 2019, Bule Hora University launched a master's degree program in Gadaa studies. For instance, the archaic nomenclatures to these Gadaa class orders are Birmaji, Horota, Bichile, Dulo, and Robale. 0000002248 00000 n 4 0 obj Where the former is appointed (and works voluntarily) by a Gadaa councilor and it is an honorary position; the later may be effectuated involuntarily. Despite the emergence of various autonomous Gadaa systems, the central principles of the system remained intact. 0000025790 00000 n [19], The Gadaa society was structured into peer groups based on chronological age or genealogical generation called Luba. Language links are at the top of the page across from the title. A number of scholars have studied Gadaa. As a result problem in a relation to incorporation of late or early born children often arises. All newly born males enter a Gadaa -set at birth, which they will belong to along with other boys of the same age, and for the next forty years they will go through five eight-year initiation periods; the Gadaa-grade is entered on the basis of generation, and boys enter their luba forty years after their fathers. That is, in principle, a son always enters the system exactly forty years (i.e. Furthermore, a de facto or de jure councilor may be removed from the office, because of lack of competence, though not limited to, through a procedure known as uprooting (buqqisuu) (The principle of uprooting is discussed in detail under chapter six of this thesis). In his comparative analysis of East African age-sets system. This committee includes members of the PP party in Oromia, members of the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF, of which the OLA is an outlawed splinter group), the Abba Gada council, and religious leaders. Whereas, early born sons cannot be assigned to a legitimate social father and thus cannot be correlated to any set in terms of generational affiliation. Whereas Gadaa grades are the phases of development through which the members pass. In his comparative analysis of East African age-sets system. There may be no refuge left for them in severe droughts. However, to be initiated to the Gadaa system, in principle, they have to be always five Gadaa grades apart from their father. Abba Gada, jaarsaa dheeda, jaarsaa reera, jaarsaa ardaa and abba olla. Furthermore, Abba Gadaa (the president) belonging to the outgoing Gadaa Council has to appoint (before handing over the power to the incoming Gadaa class) six men from among the ex-members of the Gadaa Council that are now in the semi-retired (yuuba) Gadaa grade. [5][6] A leader elected by the gadaa system remains in power only for 8 years, with an election taking place at the end of those 8 years. As of today the Borana boundaries were infiltrated by all three current governments surrounding the Borana territory which include Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia. He concludes that the Gadaa systems' technique of 'consensus through dialogue' is unique but firmly rooted in Western democratic norms, and thus well suited to adoption within Ethiopia's federally structured democracy. The class forms its own internal officials (adula hayyus) and its own assembly (yaaaa). HWn6C! The parliament, called Gumi Gayo, functions just like a present day senate with the same roles. However, among the Boran,it is commonly known as gogessa (Gadaa-cycles) and they are named as the first , the second , the third , the fourth and the fifth Gadaa cycles (gogeessa tokkoffa , gogeessa lammaffa, gogeessa sadaffa , gogeessa afraffa and gogeessa shanaffa). Both types of social groups are formed every eight years. They also learn songs, parables, proverbs, cultural and historical maps, and other social skills that they can use in public speech to praise the living and dead heroes or to criticize and ridicule cowardice and traitors. There was no taxation under this system except that Gadaaleaders and their families were provided with necessary materials, such as food, cloth, and house. The scope of gatherings ranges from socio-economic to cultural/entertainment activities. Some of these old men may have also sat in the Borana Assembly, the Salgan yaa Borana. The objectives of this study were to assess the status of tick infestation in relation to climate change, teats blinding and milk production and to estimate the economic losses caused as a result of the effect In this example, we have an age requirement, genealogical relationship, and moiety. For instance, Haberland and Asmarom vary from the former model in that the fifth Gadaa grade (raba) takes five years and the seventh, eighth, ni1nth and tenth Gadaa grades (i.e. 0000009729 00000 n (LogOut/ Credits: StoryResearch field work was undertaken in Samburu and Marsabit (for Gabbra, Samburu, Rendille, Saakuye, Dasanach, Elmolo, Waayu a.k.a Waata, and Burji superheroes/heroines), Embu and Tharaka (for Aembu, Tharaka, Ameru and Mbeere superheroes/heroines), Mombasa ( for Boni, Swahili, Pokomo, Segeju and Bajuni superheroes/heroines)and Taita-Taveta/Voi (for Taveta superheroes/heroines) capturing all information about the heroes from the 30 selected ethnic groups/communities by Museums research team.National Museums of Kenya - ContributorsMzalendo Kibunjia (PhD) - Director GeneralPurity Kiura (PhD) - Director Antiquities, Sites & MonumentsJulias Juma Ogega - Senior Curator/Research ScientistNjuguna Gichere - Research ScientistLydia Gatundu - Art CuratorEmmanuel Kariuki - Exhibit DesignerPhilemon Nyamanga - Curator/Research ScientistMercy Gakii - Curator/Research ScientistImelda Muoti - Curator/ArchivistInnocent Nyaga - Marketing OfficerSuzanne Wanjaria - Exhibits DesignerRay Balongo Khaemba - Senior Collection ManagerRaphael Igombo - Education OfficerNature Kenya - Other ContributorsThe East Africa Natural History Society (EANHS)EditingDaisy Okoti - Shujaa Stories LtdShani Mutarura - Shujaa Stories LtdJeff Muchina- Shujaa Stories LtdBrian Kiraga - Shujaa Stories LtdIllustrationsMasidza Sande Galavu - Shujaa Stories LtdMartha Shavuya Galavu - Shujaa Stories LtdPhotographyEddy Ochieng - National Museums of KenyaLinda Tambo - Shujaa Stories LtdJuelz Laval - Shujaa Stories Ltd, Abba Gadas: The Ancient Borana Leadership System. Across the dusty plains, under the shade of the acacia, six old men regard one another. That of a lion which represents strength and domination (4); and. Another feature of senior gamme is their elevation to the Gada class. The other point of exclusion was from attaining all Gada grades and age sets like males (Tesema, 2016). It is reasonable to question the reason why do most indigenous peoples of East Africa including the Oromo did organize social structure based on continuous age-groupings and periodic rituals? Put it differently, where Dulo Gadaa class is known for military leadership and defending the territory; Birmaji was, perhaps, notorious for rendering justice to the people. "I feel very weird announcing this, but tomorrow I begin a new journey hosting mornings on [610 WTVN]. This is the Adula council; they have come to debate as to who should manage the wells. He takes a seat at the head of the council as he has done, for eight years, since the beginning of his rule. RM HWJN1P - Kura Jarso the 71st Borana Oromo Abba gadaa in his house, Oromia, Yabelo, Ethiopia. The Gadaa councilors must pass through rigorous training for years about the laws and the customs of Borana, and the wisdom of leading a society before they take the position of authority in Gadaa. Gadaa effectively enforced a gender-based division of labor in Oromo society, although it allowed two equally important separate and interdependent economic domains. .Married men could also participate or send representatives to the assembly. He takes a seat at one end of the council as he has done at the beginning of his rule, eight years in total. However, for Lues all the four yuuba Gadaa grades constitute twenty-four years in sum. the former is horizontal and refers to the collective, the latter is vertical and defines the responsibilities assumed successively throughout their careers. xZmoF a>JX4z9/n}PlVW?#z[ 33~|&YiG['>{X__qH:AB)pMu}:\_n}HVg%/W|-CL;Ok#dmm6U%Y+Y%Vv8:'qS#{B\=y! For five hundred years, the Borana have religiously followed this system of ruling themselves because it has kept them together, in unity. In this respect, Gadaa is a holistic (social, economic, political and religious) system in essence and perhaps this fact made it difficult to define unanimously the Gadaa system by simple and clear terms. Hence elementary age-sets are organized in such a way that male generations who are approximately the same age share similar collective military, economic, political or ritual responsibilities. All Gadaa officials were elected for eight years by universal adult male suffrage. For instance, Leus model recognizes eleven Gadaa grades and all bear eight years constituting in sum eighty-eight years. Abba Gadas is an egalitarian socio-economic and political system of the Oromo people, in which power rotates between five Gadaa classes every eight years. Those in Kenya and Ethiopia speak Borana language that is closely related to Oromo, which is part of the Cushitic branch of the large Afro-Asiatic language family. He takes a seat at one end of the council as he has done at the beginning of his rule, eight years in total. They are economically affected and politically caught between these colonial governments and many struggles between them. Moreover, as discussed elsewhere, age-sets cross-cut Gadaa classes and moieties and eventually put the Gadaa system into motion. 185 32 The Borana people are notable for practicing Gadaa system without interruption especially those residing in the Oromia region of Ethiopia, a larger percentage of Boranas in Liban Zone of Somali region and those in central Somalia were Muslims, where as those living in Borena Zone of Ethiopia and those in Kenya majorly practicing Christian and Islamic religion, but few still hold purely to their culture especially those in Sakhu Constituency of Marsabit County. These two concepts , The interval between the entry of father and the son in the system (I) and. Education and enculturation occur through music. The people would hold elections to elect a new crop of leaders every eight years according to tradition, Indeed, democracy existed in Africa long before the white man ever set foot on the African continent and strong, age old dynasties are not the preserve of Europe and Asia. 0000000936 00000 n [12][13] Oromo people regarded the system as their common heritage and as a major part of their cultural identity. Old and wise as his years, he trudges along, stick in hand. The Gadaa grades are recruited on the basis of genealogical generations. As the age of senior gamme kicks into a more productive and extraordinary stage, so does the Kusa Gadaa grade welcome the members with different social structure, collective responsibilities and rights. Oromo philosophy, art, and calendar are based on Gadaa as an expression of Oromo civilization. of the abba gada - can be held by either moiety. How Perfect Is Ethiopian Calander? The average Daniel O'Neil is around 53 years of age with around 57% falling in to the age . east high school class of 2011, medjy toussaint net worth,